After a little more than a week of work, I’ve successfully recovered from the server failure at my old hosting provider. I’ve also implemented a new, multiply redundant backup strategy: BackUpWordPress (local and then to Dropbox) and PressBackup (to Amazon S3). The database is backed up daily, all files are constantly synced to Dropbox, and everything is sent to S3 monthly.
I’ve also switched themes, at least for now. The look may still change as I take this opportunity to adapt and improve the site.